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Information on battery types and charging capabilities

Information on battery types and charging capabilities.

The following information is kindly supplied by Sterling Power who have carried out extensive research in to batteries and their suitability to various charging systems. The following information is well worth taking the time to read as it will help you choose your next battery and dispel any myths you may have heard about batteries

Frequently Asked Questions

On this page we (Sterling) display questions that are asked of us; we hope that you find this page useful. For any queries that may not be listed on this page, please do not hesitate to contact us.

We are always being asked: which is the best battery? We refer to marine or vehicle auxiliary charging batteries or domestic batteries. There is a lot of confusing literature about this subject. The information in the literature tends to be correct, but it's the parts which are not in the literature, and the customers' assumptions that cause the confusion and hence the problem. We will try to answer the question. In order to save you time , we suggest you adopt the following attitude, and make the person selling you these products answer the question below.

The key question:

I went on to the web and obtained 3 different battery type prices, these were the first prices I came to and have no reflection on any company, I was looking for about a 100 amp hr battery

100 amp hr leisure. normal open lead acid ( so called leisure ) £49.99
100 amp hr A.G.M = £ 175
100 amp hr Gel = £265.59

So in our mind the A.G.M. is about 3 times more expensive than the standard one. And the gel is about 5 times more. So the question is, if these batteries are 3-5 times more expensive than the standard one, what do they do that is 3-5 times better? Do they last 3-5 times longer ? Do they charge 3-5 times faster to reduce your engine running hours ? Rather than ask us these questions, please ask the sales man, who is trying to sell this stuff for cycling, exactly what you are getting that is 3-5 times better than standard lead acid batteries.

The brutal truth about marine leisure batteries.

1)There is no such thing as a marine battery. If you see a marine label on a battery it is simply words and may as well say Mickey Mouse.

2)For cost and performance: Open lead acid batteries are the best. All other batteries are a derivatives of this with variations to suit different markets where there are specific problems implementing the standard lead acid battery. E.g Gel is a standard lead acid battery, except that the acid has been jellified. But by solidifying the electrolyte this introduces many problems not associated with free flowing water based batteries.

3)“Most expensive is best.” This is not even close to being true. In fact we would say the reverse is true in the marine leisure market. When reading all the sales literature regarding gel/a.g.m, please note that none of their curves and claims refer to standard lead acid batteries. (They know better.) They never claim they have better performance than standard open lead acid, this is an assumption on your side. They may claim that they can stay on a shelf longer.

4)If a statement says that this is the best battery, the question is, best at what aspect?

5)If the term 'maintenance free' is on a battery, then treat this with caution. There is no such thing as maintenance free. All batteries are basically the same, a gel, seal lead acid, and A G M they are only maintenance free because of the reduced charging performance curves, and not because there is something special about the battery. If you charge a normal lead acid battery to the gel or A.G.M curves, then they would not require maintenance either. Remember 'maintenance free' is a handicap to fast charging not an advantage. This feature, which on the surface looks good, is, in most cases the worst feature that you could possibly buy; as this feature dramatically limits the maximum charging characteristics of the battery.

6)Fast charging costs water, i.e. if you want to charge you batteries fast, don't touch a sealed/gel/agm etc with a barge pole. Fast charging will result in a certain % water loss from the battery. If the battery is sealed the water loss cannot be replaced. REMEMBER FAST CHARGING AND SEALED/MAINTENANCE FREE ARE A CONTRADICTION OF TERMS. You may not like this , but tough, it's the way it is.

7)Watch the term leisure / deep cycle as it simply does not exist. The standard so called leisure batteries are simply starter batteries with extra support for the active lead material. This may increase the life by 5-10 %, but does not turn a starter battery into a deep cycle battery. True traction (deep cycle) are not available at a sensible price and are uneconomical to use for standard leisure use. However, if you plan to live onboard or travel the world, then do look at 6 v or 2 v traction and build your battery bank up from those batteries, but expect to pay about 3-6 times the price of so called standard leisure batteries. On a daily use cycle, the standard so called leisure battery (which is a starter battery) will last you as little as 6-8 months where as traction would last 15 years. But on a leisure rating (2 weekends per month and about 4 weeks holiday) then you would get about 5-7 years out of a standard leisure. That's if you charge it right using advanced regulators, and constant current battery chargers.)

8)Battery sales companies quote battery cycles such as 6000 cycles for the battery. This looks good on the surface, however it will be 6000 cycles at say 10% discharge. This is a meaningless figure. All batteries have a manufactures graph which, odds are, you will not see in full; as the embarrassing section tends to end up on the advertising companies editing floor. The graph will have % discharge on one side, and cycles on the other. This graph is sometimes shown on glossy battery information, but is normally censored at about 30-40% discharger where the figures can still show 4000 cycles. What they fail to show is the 100% discharge cycle which at the end of the day is the only ultimate datum point. Whichever battery performs the best at 100% discharge will perform best at 50% etc. The interesting fact is that they are all about the same. That is because they are all basically the same battery. A gel and conventional starter battery go down the same production line until one has a gel substance put in it and the other liquid. The shock with this figure is that for gel, sealed, or leisure, etc etc, the constant figure is about 30-60 cycles, where as true traction with thicker plates is over 300 +. It is however available from correctly specked commercial batteries.

So which is the best battery for standard domestic leisure use?

The job we are referring to is for auxiliary charging system on boats, camper vans or vehicles. I am not getting into what each and every battery type is best at, or for, as each type has a market, it just maybe not this market.
To pick the best battery for your job, then at least understand how they work. Forget the actual chemical formulas and all the fancy terms around, the bottom line is that lead acid batteries have been around since the 1st world war and the basic principles have changed very little. The only thing we all agree on is they are not environmentally friendly, but they are cheap to make, and they will remain the best until such time as some one comes up with a solution which can compete. Which by the way to date they simply have not.

So how do they work?

Let us understand the basics. They are all lead acid , but fall into 2 basic groups. A starter battery and a traction battery (fork lift truck, true deep cycle)

Type 1 ( starter batteries ) A battery is simply a bucket of energy. If you wish to get the energy out fast, to start a engine ( cold cranking rating ) then you need a large surface area ( large plate size ) The only way to get a large surface area into the bucket is to make the plates thin, so they can squeeze into the bucket ( this is your starter battery, it needs the cold cranking kick, in order to start the car, so its plates are thin to achieve this). This theory is pushed even further with batteries which increase this surface area more, to make what are known as high torque batteries. These deliver even higher cold cranking by putting the plates in a 'swiss roll' configuration, in order to make them thinner and increase the surface area. This is good for cold cranking, but has a fatal flaw when it comes to fast charging. (the problem is, it works too well when charging and destroys itself.)

Type 2 ( traction or fork lift truck batteries) batteries are not interested in the cold cranking kick which is required for a starter battery, but are still interested in the power in the bucket. So they can reduce their surface area of the plates. The good thing about being able to reduce the surface area is that you can make the plates much thicker. The end result is you still get the same power from the bucket, it is simply delivered at a slower rate.

So for deep cycle, and long life, the traction batteries are by far and away the best. But their price tends to kill them. However, if you are doing a long journey round the world, or going away from the u.k. for 2 years + , then investing in 2 volt or 6 volt traction batteries is a must, regardless of the cost, and they will pay for themselves many times over. For general leisure use they are the best, but a bit of a waste of money unless you want to keep the boat for 15 years to get the use out of them.

So what's the end result of these two battery types?

A battery is made up of lead plates, with a lead paste on the plates. Every time the battery is used, then so many bits per sq inch fall off the plates, if you have a large surface area then a large number of bits will fall off. Then to make maters worse your paste is thin so you cannot afford to lose the paste. However, if you have a small surface area and thicker plates the same is true, but the plates are thicker and as such you don't care so much. That's it in very simplistic terms, and those are the differences between traction batteries and starter batteries.

As you can see from the above 2 battery types, the plate configuration cannot be blended. If for starting, you have a large surface area of thin plates, for traction you have a small surface area of thicker plates. One is black and one is white, there is no grey area. So if you are purchasing a battery and it has a cold cranking rating, and the sales man says it is a deep cycle battery but will also start your engine, then it is a starter battery.

What we want now is the best for general leisure.

Having understood the 2 x basic types then you need to ask yourself -what do you want from the battery?

Most people want:

1) to charge their batteries as fast as possible in order to reduce their engine hrs

2)pay as little as possible for the above

3) get about 5-7 years use as a leisure battery, (2 weekends per month and about 4 weeks holiday per year).
If you are one of the average leisure people then stick to low cost lead acid so called leisure. If you want to turn your boat upside down, and expect to wright in about 5 secs, then the lead acid range with sealed removable caps would be a good choice.

If you want to turn your boat upside down for a hour or two then a sealed lead acid would be worth looking at. However don't expect to charge them as fast.

Conclusion: 

The best battery to use for fast charging using advanced charging systems
a) For general leisure use: use low cost lead acid which can be topped up with water. So called leisure batteries
b) For long term cruising then use 6 volt traction
Avoid gel / agm for 3 reasons
1) very expensive
2) very slow charger rate
3) poor cycling numbers

Avoid sealed / A.G.M batteries for 3 reasons ( a.g.m. )

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